People are living longer than ever before, with advancements in medicine and public health the key factors. Men aged 65 can expect to live another 18.6 years, while women can expect to live another 21 years. However, just because we can live longer lives it doesn’t necessarily mean we can live healthier lives. Our bodies begin to deteriorate as we age, and we become more susceptible to illness. For some time now, scientists have been researching molecules that can potentially slow or reverse the effects of ageing. These molecules can potentially help us live longer and healthier lives.
Every one of our cells contains a vital molecule called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, also known as NAD+. Our cells utilise NAD+ for multiple functions, including the most imperative for producing the energy our cells require to function efficiently and create the proteins that repair damaged DNA. However, as we age, NAD+ begins a steady decline in production.
Research indicates that the steady decline of NAD+ in our body leads to many age-related diseases. The belief is that if we can fight this decline we might be able to live longer whilst remaining healthy.
Currently, one way we can potentially maintain healthy NAD+ levels in our system is by supplementing our bodies with the precursor to NAD+, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Cellular compounds are created in a way that each component is a precursor to the next one. To create more NAD+ as you age, you might require more precursors like NMN.
So, with this in mind, what are the potential benefits to NMN, its potential side effects and recommended doses?
The potential benefits of NMN anti-ageing supplements
Once entered into the body’s cells, NMN converts into NAD+, which provides the energy cells needed for healthy ageing. NAD+ is also pivotal in activating proteins that sustain our DNA’s integrity. Given NAD+ is so vital for so many cellular processes, there are a range of potential benefits to the molecule for most humans.
Here are some examples of its potential health benefits.
Promotes blood flow and vascular health
Humans rely on their skeletal muscles for strength, stability and mobility. To maintain strength and muscular health, these muscles must store a certain amount of key energy molecules, like fatty acids and glucose. NAD+ is required to metabolise these energy molecules, and therefore steady replenishment is required.
Studies indicate that NMN also fights against numerous age-related health problems, including oxidative stress, blood vessel stiffening, as well as assisting in our gene’s activity (gene expression) and our cells’ ability to continue dividing.
Improves muscle strength & endurance
Research indicates that mice fed with NMN for long periods had enhanced energy metabolism without any obvious side effects. Our muscles’ health grows more important as we get older and our NAD+ supply dwindles.
Fights heart disease
Your heart can’t take a rest, and therefore energy production is vital for its health. It requires all the NAD+ it can to maintain a high level of vitality. Therefore, cardiac cells require a continued supply of NMN to keep it beating.
Reduces obesity risk
Obesity can be hard to treat and is linked to a variety of health problems. There is no simple solution for obesity-related illnesses like metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Although healthy lifestyle alterations like improved diet and regular exercise can help, every little thing you can do is important.
Research on mice indicates that NMN plays a part that is similar to aspects of calorie restriction (CR). CR can have plenty of positive effects on our health, however, it is difficult to maintain over extended time periods. Mimicking its potential benefits without following extreme exercise and diet regimens would be great.
Increases maintenance of DNA repairs
Proteins called sirtuins are activated from NAD+. Sirtuins play a vital role in maintaining our DNA’s integrity. The DNA at the ends of our chromosomes grow shorter every time our cells divide. At some point, our genes become damaged. Sirtuins the process of shortening by stabilising those ends, known as telomeres. Sirtuins rely on NAD+ in order to function efficiently. Mice that fed on NMN activated sirtuins and therefore had more stable telomeres.
Enhance mitochondrial function
Humans cannot exist without mitochondria. Mitochondria are unique cellular structures and are also referred to as the cell’s powerhouses. Mitochondria converts our food molecules into energy used by our cells. NAD+ plays a pivotal role in this process. The loss of NAD+ as we age might even contribute to neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease. Increased NAD+ can help protect against these neurodegenerative problems.
Recommended NMN dosages for humans
Studies on animals indicates that increasing NAD+ levels in our bodies can fight multiple age-related diseases including diabetes, heart diseases and neurodegeneration. Increasing NAD+ may even extend the lifespans of mice, worms and yeast. NMN and its NAD+ increasing potential in animals have led to scientists stating it can have several therapeutic benefits. Scientific trials continue to deem whether NMN supplements are safe and how much we should consume.
Clinical trials regarding the safety of NMN
The first ever research conducted on NMN safety for humans concludes that dosages of up to 500mg administered orally is safe for humans. Furthermore, numerous FDA-approved clinical trials have supported NMN’s safety as a dietary supplement.
Research continues into just how much humans should consume each day. However, clinical trials regarding NAD+ boosters indicate that taking up to one gram per day orally can stimulate NAD+ metabolism in healthy middle-aged and older individuals.
Are there any side effects to NMN supplement consumption?
To date, no side effects of NMN supplement consumption have been found in human testing. Studies have mostly been conducted on mice, with studies revealing positive effects on brain function, metabolism, heart health, reproduction, immunity, lifespan, muscles, liver and bone structure. Animals feeding on NMN over long periods showed no serious side effects or toxicity, and no increased mortality rate over the 12 month period.
One NMN safety study conducted on humans revealed no safety concerns after single oral doses of 100, 250 and 500mg. Scientists detected no changes in blood pressure, bloody oxygen levels, body temperature or heart rate up to five hours after administering the NMN supplement. Lab analysis of the recipients’ blood showed no significant alterations, except regarding the levels of four molecules in the blood, which were within their normal spans. This study also found that there were no sleep alterations before and after consumption.
Future studies into NMN supplements & potential side effects
Scientists still need to conduct research into potential side effects on humans administering higher doses. Some are calling for research into doses of up to 500mg taken orally to see if such doses can create side effects. There is still a lot of research to be done regarding the human body’s reaction to NAD+ boosting supplements, but current research indicates promising potential.